Last week, the International Court of Justice heard initial arguments in the case brought by South Africa, which accuses Israel of “acts and omissions” that are “genocidal in character” against Palestinians in Gaza. South Africa cited the scale of Israel’s military campaign in Gaza, which has killed roughly one in every 100 residents of the territory, and its restrictions on humanitarian aid, which the United Nations said has left Gaza on the brink of a devastating famine. Israel fiercely denies the allegations and has also opposed the case on procedural grounds, saying that if any genocidal acts have occurred then they were perpetrated by Hamas against the Israelis. The judges may take years to reach a final decision. In the meantime, South Africa has asked the I.C.J. to order “provisional measures,” roughly similar to a temporary injunction, to protect Palestinians now.