Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel and President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia spoke on Sunday, offering sharply different accounts of what was said in a reflection of the strained relationship between the two leaders since the outbreak of war between Israel and Hamas. Mr. Netanyahu said he was dissatisfied with positions that Moscow had adopted at the United Nations Security Council and “expressed sharp criticism of the dangerous cooperation between Russia and Iran,” according to a statement from his office. Russia, a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council, on Friday backed a U.N. resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire in the Gaza Strip. Mr. Netanyahu’s criticism of Russia over its ties with Iran is, in part, a reference to the close relationship between the two countries fostered by the war in Ukraine. Tehran, a principal backer of Hamas, has supplied Moscow with thousands of exploding drones for use in Russia’s war in Ukraine.