Civilian Critical Infrastructure Is No Longer a Taboo Target

Several governments including the United States recognize the criticality of protecting critical infrastructure as a national security priority.  But there is little headway in determining what, if any, operations against critical infrastructure are acceptable.  Without such consensus, nation states are left to their own devices, opting to use sanctions or retaliatory cyber strikes to register their complaints.  These are poor options, as lack of setting such redlines and having governments sign on to them risks a cyber incident being misinterpreted and misunderstood, and thereby, increasing the chance for state-on-state escalation via disproportionate retaliation.